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# PHYSICS PROJECT WORK

OHMS LAW

PURPOSE

I=E/R

## Verify Ohms Law Explain how it works

CONTENTS

BACKGROUND METHODOLOGY OHMS LAW WHAT OHMS LAW STATES ? VERIFICATION OF OHMS LAW RESISTANCE FACTORS ON WHICH THE RESISTANCE OF CONDUCTOR DEPENDS SUMMARY

BACKGROUND

Ohms law was created in 1827 by George Ohm. It is one of the most widely used and recognized laws. Very important basis of all electronic and electrical systems. Has remained unchanged for almost 200 years.

METHODOLOGY

## Sources Used: Books Internet Textbooks Experimentation

Please note: The experiments performed were not meant to make discoveries or find new concepts, they are simply used to prove and verify Ohms Law.

## OHMS LAW DEALS PRIMARILY WITH THE VALUES OF :

V = Potential Difference (Volts) I = Current R = Resistance (Ohms) = Universal symbol for Ohms

E I R

E IR

E R I

OHMS LAW

Ohms law defines the relationships between (P) power, (E) voltage, (I) current, and (R) resistance. One ohm is the resistance value through which one volt will maintain a current of one ampere.

OHMS LAW

(I) Current is what flows on a wire or conductor like water flowing down a river. Current flows from negative to positive on the surface of a conductor. Current is measured in (A) amperes. (E) Voltage is the difference in electrical potential between two points in a circuit. Its the push or pressure behind current flow through a circuit, and is measured in (V)volts.

## OHMS LAW STATES THAT:

The current flowing through a conductor is directly proportional to the potential difference between its ends provided its temperature remains constant. I V or V I or V/I=constant or V/I=R
Where R is a constant called resistance for a given metallic wire at a given temperature.

K ( ) R B -

V -

## VERIFICATION OF OHMS LAW

Set up the circuit as shown in the circuit diagram. First use one cell and note the current (I) in the ammeter and the potential difference (V) in the voltmeter across the nichrome wire AB. Repeat by using two cells, three cells and four cells and note the readings in the ammeter and voltmeter. Then plot a graph between the current (I) and potential difference (V). The graph will be a straight line.

This shows that the current flowing through a conductor is directly proportional to the potential difference across its ends.

I V or V I or V/I=R
where R is a constant called resistance of the conductor.

Potential difference ( V )

Current ( I )

RESISTANCE
Resistance is the property of a conductor to resist the flow of current through it. According to Ohms law R = V/I The SI unit of resistance is ohm (). If the potential difference across the two ends of a wire is 1 V and the current flowing through it is 1 A then the resistance R of the conductor is 1 ohm (1 ). Since I = V/R The current flowing through a resistor is inversely proportional to the resistance. So if the resistance is doubled, then the current gets halved.

## FACTORS ON WHICH THE RESISTANCE OF CONDUCTOR DEPENDS

The resistance of a conductor depends upon its: Length Area of cross section Material of the conductor. Resistance is directly proportional to the length of the conductor and inversely proportional to the area of cross section of the conductor.

FACTORS ON WHICH THE RESISTANCE OF CONDUCTOR DEPENDS Rl R I /A or R I/A or R I/A Where (rho) is a constant of proportionality called Resistivity of the material of the conductor.

The

SI unit of resistivity is ohm meter ( m). Conductors like metals and alloys have low resistivity 10-8 m to 10-6 m. Insulators like rubber, glass etc. have high resistivity 1012 m to 1017 m.

SUMMARY

The purpose of this presentation was to verify, explain, and demonstrate Ohms Law. In the first section Ohms Law deals primarily with the values of Potential Difference, Current and Resistance and then what Ohms Law states.

SUMMARY

In the second section the Ohms Law verified by an experiment by setting circuit in one cell and then using two, three, and four cells and readings through voltmeter and ammeter, then plotting of graph.

SUMMARY

In the third section the explanation of resistance and factors on which the resistance of conductor depends.

REFERENCES

Queensland Chamber of Agricultural Societies, Images 2009. [Online]. Available http://www.qcas.net.au/images/Graphics%20GIF/33_books.gif. [Accessed M. MAY 23/12.] BDEG, Goerge Ohm 2005. [Online]. Available: http://bdeg.sopron.hu/~spider/Ohm.jpg. [Accessed M. MAY 23/12]. XJTAG, Images 2006. [Online]. Available: http://www.xjtag.com/images/press/30-03-06c.jpg. [Accessed M. MAY 23/12]. modyoursystem, Pics 2007. [Online]. Available: http://www.modyoursystem.com/pics/multimeter.jpg. [Accessed M. MAY. 23/12]. R. L. Boylestead, Ohms Law, Power and Energy in Introductory Circuit Analysis: eleventh edition, V. Anthony, R. Davidson, and L. Dimmick, Ed., Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2007, pp. 101-105.. Wikipedia, "Ohm's Law" 2009. [Online]. Available: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ohm's_law. [Accessed M. MAY.24, 2012]. Wikipedia, "Georg Simon Ohm" 2009. [Online]. Available: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Georg_ohm. [Accessed M. MAY. 24, 2012]. Physics, "Ohm's Law" 2009. [Online]. Available: http://www.physics.uoguelph.ca/tutorials/ohm/Q.ohm.intro.html. [Accessed M. MAY. 24, 2012]. All About Circuits, "How Voltage, Current, and Resistance Relate" 2009. [Online]. Available: http://www.allaboutcircuits.com/vol_1/chpt_2/1.html. [Accessed M. MAY 24, 2012].

PRESENTED BY:
SOMYA PARAMGURU OF CLASS 10