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Cereals and Cereal value added- Products

Classes of Cereals
The seven principal cereals grown in the world are: Wheat Rice Maize Barley Sorghum Oats Rye

WHEAT

Utilization
Wheat grain is a staple food used to make flour for leavened, flat and steamed breads, biscuits, cookies, cakes, breakfast cereal, pasta, noodles, and for fermentation to make beer, other alcoholic beverages, or biofuel Wheat is planted to a limited extent as a forage crop for livestock, and its straw can be used as a construction material for roofing thatch

Products
Wheat bran Wheat germ meal Defatted wheat germ meal

Mill feeds

Other Uses for Wheat


Wood Paper Adhesives Polymers Plastic Bags Charcoal Cups Fuels Insulation Medical Swabs Roofing Cosmetics Hair Conditioners Moisturizers Egg white substitutes Golf Tees Skeet Pigeons Foams

RICE

Utilization
As a cereal grain, it is the most important staple food for a large part of the world's human population, especially in Asia and the West Indies

Rice production and consumption are often associated with low incomes and poverty

Products
The products resulting from harvesting of paddy in the field and in its processing into milled rice are: straw

husk
bran rice broken

MAIZE

Utilization
Meal is a primary product obtained from maize The meal from maize can be obtained by manual or mechanically milling Sugar-rich varieties called sweet corn are usually grown for human consumption, while field corn varieties are used for animal feed

Products
There are many products from maize that have been taken over by industry and manufactured and marketed at commercial scale Maize feed meal Maize bran

Maize gluten feed (Gluten 20)


Maize gluten meal (Gluten 60)

BARLEY

Utilization
Barley is mainly used as feed for animals The second largest use of barley grain is for malt Globally, 30 % of the world barley production is used for malting purpose and 70 % for feed use Due to the fact that barley grains have higher soluble dietary fiber and lower low density lipoprotein (LDL) content than that of wheat, some food manufacturers now favor barley as excellent food stuff

Products
Barley has also some products that can be used for various purposes

Straw
Forage Barley hulls Pearl barley byproducts Barley mill byproduct

Sorghum

Utilization
Sorghum is used for food, fodder, and the production of alcoholic beverages It is drought tolerant and heat tolerant, and is especially important in arid regions It is an important food crop in Africa, Central America, and South Asia

Products
Sorghum in Animal Feeds Fodder Grain sorghum gluten feed Grain sorghum gluten meal Grain sorghum germ cake or grain sorghum germ meal Grain sorghum mill feed

OAT

Products
Oat hulls

Oat flour

Oat meal

Millet

Utilization
Proso millet as livestock feed is similar to oats and barley in feeding value It is commonly fed in ground form to cattle, sheep, and hogs Whole seed can be fed to poultry. Proso can be cut for hay, but it is not as suitable as foxtail for this purpose

Foxtail millet is usually grown for hay or silage often as a short-season emergency hay crop Some seed is used for finch and wild bird feeds For forage, foxtail millet is harvested at the late boot to late bloom stage Foxtail millet should not be fed to horses as the only source of roughage since it acts as a laxative

RYE

Rye
Rye is a grass grown extensively as a grain and as a forage crop It is a member of the wheat tribe (Triticeae) and is closely related to barley and wheat Rye is second only to wheat among the grains most commonly used in the production of bread

Rye grain is used for flour, rye bread, rye beer, some whiskeys, some vodkas It is also an important cereal grain for production of mixed animal feeds It can also be eaten whole, either as boiled rye berries, or by being rolled, similar to rolled oats

References
http://www.fao.org/inpho/inpho-post-harvest-compendium/cerealsgrains/en/ http://www.ag.ndsu.edu/pubs/ansci/beef/as1020w.htm

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