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INDUSTRIAL PROCESS CONTROL: INSTRUMENTATION AND CONTROL OF CHEMICAL REACTOR

Nikhilbinoy.C Assistant Professor, ICE Department, N.S.S. College of Engineering, Palakkad.

Temperature Control

Reaction temperature is the control variable in reaction control. Variables sensitive to temperature are:
Reaction

rate. Side reactions. Distribution of side products. Polymer molecular weight distribution.

TT

TIC

Retur n

Heat Transfe r Mediu

Many reactions are exothermic. The released heat must be removed from the system as it is liberated by the reactants to control the reaction temperature.

Unsatisfactory large number installations.

for of

TT

TIC

Reactor Retur Temperature n Setpoint Reactor Temperature with localized temperature differences Heat Transfe r Mediu

Under throttled conditions, the flow of heat transfer medium can be inadequate to maintain a good heat transfer coefficient. Can result in localized temperature differences within the reactor (hot and cold spots).

Due to different heat transfer area of the jacket. Due to temperature

TT

TIC

Retur n

Temperature gradient problem is reduced. This system has time lags in the response of the loop of the heat transfer medium in adjusting the temperature of the cooling medium.

Heat Transfe r Mediu

Due to reactant mass and by the relatively large quantity of heat which must be removed to bring a small change in reactant temperature. Overcompensation, upset, cycling, etc. will occur before the controller compensated

TT

SP
TIC

M
TT

Time lag of previous systems can be reduced by using cascade controller.


Reactor

batch temperature is the primary variable.

Slow to changes in the heat transfer medium flow.

Heat Transfe r Mediu

Jacket

temperature is the secondary variable.

Pressure Control

Certain chemical reactors require pressure control.

Oxidation and hydrogenation.

Reaction rate is also a function of pressure in gas phase reaction.

FR

PR C

PT

FT

Proces s gas

Vent
FR C PR C

PT FT

Vent Condens er Cooling Medium

Process gas

Optimization

FT

SP FR CCascade Controller RatioFY Controller


FY RC RA

TT FT FR C TR C

Cascade Controller
TT

SP
OIC

Maintains the reaction at high rate. The reactor is controlled to maintain a feed rate high enough that polymerization will occur as rapidly as the cooling system can remove the reaction heat. Two feed streams are on feed ratio.

PIC

Charging feed A at high rate to achieve maximum optimization.

Using conventional cascade controller, the coolent temperature is maintained at low temperature to maintain the jacket temperature as low. OIC is used to maintain 90%

Thank You