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Architec ture

Marianne M. Custodio

Learning Objectives
Identify examples of architecture representative of other cultures; Identify examples of architecture representative of the artistic styles of other times; Appreciate the importance of architecture that reveals something about the space it contains and the activities within and about it; Understand the challenges confronting Philippine architecture; and value the importance of Philippine architectural heritage.

Architecture
The art and science of designing and constructing buildings/ structures.

Architecture The word architecture comes from the Latin, architectura and ultimately from Greek, arkitekton, an architect, or more precisely master builder.

Architecture Denotes the art and discipline of creating an actual, or inferring an implied or apparent plan of any complex object or system.

Architecture Connotes implied architecture of abstract things, the apparent architecture of natural things, or explicitly planned architectures of human-made things.

Architecture As a profession is the practice of providing architectural services.


Practice: planning, designing and oversight of a buildings construction by an architect Architectural services: feasibility & cost for the builder; function & aesthetics for user

The Role of Architect The architect is to be concerned firstly with the construction.
This encompasses all the practical matters of site, of materials and their limitations and of human capability.

The Role of Architect The architect is to be concerned secondly with the articulation.
The building must work and must please and suit the needs of those who use it.

The Role of Architect The architect is to be concerned thirdly with the aesthetics.
This includes both proportion and ornament. of of

-Alberti

The Role of Architect


An architect draws upon mathematics, science, art, technology, social sciences, politics and history, and is often governed by the architects personal approach or philosophy. An architect should be well versed in other fields of learning such as music and astronomy.
-D. Rowland

Theory of Architecture

A good building should satisfy the three principles of firmitatis utilitatis venustatis.
-Vitruvius

Theory of Architecture
Durability It should stand up robustly and remain in good condition. Utility It should be useful; and function well for the people using it. Beauty It should delight people,

Brief Historical Trace of Architecture

Brief Historical Trace of Architecture


Greek Architecture Roman Architecture Byzantine Architecture Romanesque Architecture Gothic Architecture Renaissance Architecture 19th Century Architecture Current Trends

Architecture
One of the early architectural developments was the use of the post-and-lintel method

A beam is placed horizontally across upright posts.

Greek Architecture
The three classical orders are: Doric Ionic Corinthian

Architecture
Ancient Greek Orders (styles): composed of a shaft, capital, and base.
No base, simple capital & grooved shaft With base, scrolled capital and grooved shaft With base, acanthus-leafed capital and fluted shaft
http://www.bozzle.com/perClassicOrders.html

Greek Architecture

Temple of Hera, Paestum

Hephaistion, Athens

Greek Architecture

Temple of Hera, Paestum

Hephaistion, Athens

Roman Architecture
First to use bricks and cement Colliseum, basilicas, arches, aqueducts, amphitheaters

Roman Architecture
Key developments include the arch,

http://www.arlington.k12.va.us/schools/drew/a&a/theromans.htm

Roman Architecture
and the vault.

http://www.arlington.k12.va.us/schools/drew/a&a/theromans.htm

Roman Architecture
The arch was a purely Roman invention. An arch is often made up of small stones called voussoir and a large central stone called a keystone.

Roman Innovation
Tuscan Order:
Like the Doric, except this one has a base.

Roman Innovation
The Composite order combined elements of both the Ionic and Corinthian. It appears to be Corinthian acanthus leaves, supplemented with volutes.

Roman Innovation

The Romans were the great engineers of the ancient world. Their structures, particularly of public works, were often massive in scale.

Ruins of the Basilica of Constantine

Roman Architecture

Ruins of the Basilica of Constantine

Roman Architecture

Ruins of the Basilica of Constantine

Byzantine Architecture
Widespread use of the dome, supported on pendentives

Byzantine Architecture

http://www.arlington.k12.va.us/schools/drew/a&a/theromans.htm

Byzantine Architecture

Ruins of the Basilica of Constantine

Byzantine Architecture

Ruins of the Basilica of Constantine

Romanesque Architecture
Marked by rounded arches and heavy walls giving a fortress-like impression Introduced the ribbed vault, which facilitated height and width, paving the way for the Gothic

Combining features of contemporary Western Roman and Byzantine buildings, Romanesque architecture is known by its massive quality, its thick walls, round arches, sturdy piers, groin vaults, large towers and decorative arcading.

Gothic Architecture
Gothic architecture is characterized by tall minarets pointed arches, large windows and stained glass painted with Bible stories. And the pointed arch, flying buttress and the long beam-column create a sense of flying. The majestic appearance the vast space in the church and the long windows with stained glass produce a strong religious atmosphere. The plane of the church is based on the Latin cross, but there is a pair of towers added on both sides of the doors at west.

Pointed Arch

Flying Buttress
Buttress, also known as kongfuduo, is a supporting facility to share the pressure from the main walls. It has been largely used in Roman Architecture. The original buttress was solid and covered by the roof. However, the buttress with Gothic style is exposed out to be known as flying buttress. Due to the further requirements of the height, the role and appearance of buttress have been greatly enhanced. It is coved with complicated decorates and elaborate carvings.

Stained Glass
Gothic architecture gradually abolishes the gallery and aisle and increases the size of the window. These windows are high enough, almost to be used as the walls. The stained glass, covered with religious stories which help to illustrate the doctrines to illiterate people is of high artistic achievement. There are two main colors, blue and red. Blue symbolizes the heaven and red symbolizes the blood of Christ. The stained glass creates a mysterious but brilliant scene, which express peoples longing

Beam-Column
Many columns, no longer simple round, come together and emphasize the vertical lines, which makes the whole architecture to form an organic whole with simple lines and grand appearance.

The first Gothic architecture in the world

Stoned Architecture

Renaissance Architecture
Characterized by the adaptation of classical order and design, particularly Roman; harmonious repetition of details, the use of horizontal lines and delicate carvings Mood is worldly, aristocratic and balance

Renaissance Architecture

John Nash, Ionic Park Crescent, Regents Park, London, 1806, 181921

John Nash, Royal Pavilion, Brighton, Sussex, England, 1815-1821

Banqueting Room, The Royal Pavilion, Brighton

19th Century Architecture


Use of new construction materials Hydraulic and steel cable elevators made higher structures possible Concentration of business in urban areas resulted in higher land costs

John Ruskin-a cucumber frame. A.W.N. Pugin a crystal humbug and a glass monster

Sir Joseph Paxton, Crystal Palace, London, 1850-1851

Exhibit Hall

Cockerell, Taylorian Institute, Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, 1839-1845

Bexley Heath, Red House, Kent, UK, 1859-1860 William Morris-Arts and Craft period

http://www.chicline.com/Paris-Opera-Garnier-photosslideshow.php.

Daniel Burnham and John Root, Reliance Building, Chicago, Illinois, 1890-1895

Louise Sullivan: Father of Modern Architecture, Guaranty Building, Buffalo, New York, 1895-1895 Whatever is beautiful rests on the foundation of the necessary.

Current Trends

Weightlessness Spaciousness Transparency

Cesar Pelli, Petronas Towers, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 1998

Le Corbusier, Villa Savoye, Poissy-sur-Seine, France,1929-30.

Modern Concepts of Architecture

Form follows function

Architecture can stimulate & influence social life without presuming that, in & of itself, it will promote social development

Consideration of sustainability

Architecture must be a transcendent synthesis of historical precedent, functional necessities, & socially aware concerns & a creation of worth in & of itself.

Architectural Planning

Orientation Design Fenestration Walls Color Materials techniques

and

Types of Architecture According to Function

Domestic Recreational Commercial Religious Military or defense Factories

Cultural Meaning of Architecture

Challenges Confronting the Philippine Architecture

Redefining the Boundaries of Philippine Architecture

Architecture
A series of columns is called a colonnade.

A series of arches is called an arcade.

The arch, vault, and dome are variations of the same concept that allowed for greater height and more space inside a building.

Architecture
The Romans were great engineers. They developed concrete as a building material, which was used in building aqueducts, baths, and other public works projects.

Architecture
Flying Buttress: external arch that counterbalanced the outward thrust of the high, vaulted ceilings.

http://www.m-w.com/mw/art/flyingbu.htm

Architecture
During the Industrial Revolution, many new materials were developed: glass-- Crystal Palace (1851)

http://www.uh.edu/engines/epi1158.htm

Architecture
and wrought iron: The Eiffel Tower

Modern Architecture
Antonio Gaudi: Spanish architect no flat surface or straight lines (organic)

http://www.lexised.com/architecture/gaudi/casam.html

Modern Architecture

Antonio Gaudis most famous building: La Sagrada Familia

Modern Architecture
The 1st skyscraper was made in St. Louis, MO by Louis Sullivan who coined the expression form follows function.

Modern Architecture
Frank Lloyd Wright: American architect; carefully considered the environment where the building was to be constructed.

Falling Water More Wright

Modern Architecture
Steel and concrete are the favored materials for commercial type construction. Wood and brick are the favored materials for residential construction.