You are on page 1of 159

Chapter 1

INTRODUCTION TO
CHEMISTRY
Historical Development
of CHEMISTRY
Do you think chemistry has
existed even before its
declaration as a science?

What are the proof of its
existence?



History of Chemistry
Early practices of chemistry:

1. Metallurgy
2. Use of fermentation in making wine and beer (10,000
yrs ago)
3. Leather tanning in Mesopotamia
(7,000 yrs ago)
4. Glass making by the Egyptians
(4,500 yrs ago)
5. Use of enzymes to make cheese (3,000
yrs ago)
History of Chemistry
Fermentation in
making wine and
beer (10,000 yrs
ago)
History of Chemistry
Leather tanning in
Mesopotamia (7,000 yrs
ago)
History of Chemistry
Glass making by the Egyptians (4,500 yrs ago)
using sand, limestone and baking soda
History of Chemistry
Use of enzymes to make
cheese (3,000 yrs ago)
History of Chemistry
600 B.C.
highlights extraction and working of metals.
Egyptians extracted copper, gold, silver and lead
from their ores and work on brass and bronze.
dyeing and alcoholic beverages production
extraction of oils and alkaloid from plants
History of Chemistry
600 - 200 B.C.
highlights the Greeks curiosity, intellect and
vigorous imagination.
Original ideas and many fundamental scientific
problems was recognized by the philosophers
of Ancient Greece.
Democritus, Aristotle and Leucippus are among
those Greek philosophers.
Greek ideas
OAll substances are made of 4
elements
gFire - hot
gAir - light
gWater - wet
gEarth - cool, heavy
OBlend these in different proportions to
get all substances
Thales (600 B.C.)
Water
Xenophanes (500 B.C.)
Earth Water
Empedocles (440 B.C.)
Four elements
Earth
Water
Air
Fire
(more commonly called dirt)
Two Forces shape matter
Love & Strife
First Table of the Elements
Hot Dry
Cold
Wet
Fifth Element
Quintessence
Philosophers stone
Fifth Element makes up the
celestial bodies
Gold is the perfect metal.
All other metals are less perfect.
The fifth element is so divine that it
can turn the lesser (more base)
metals into gold.
Elixir of life (a fountain of youth)
Fifth Element
Chinese ideas
OAll matters constitute of 5 elements
gMetal
gWood
gWater
gFire
gEarth
O"Different combinations of earth, metal,
wood, water and fire form everything in the
world."
Chinese ideas
O"Water corresponds to moisture and the direction
of down.
OFire corresponds to blaze and the direction of
up.
OWood is curvy or straight in nature.
OMetal is unstable under fire.
OEarth is necessary for agriculture.
OWater becomes salty when travelling down.
Chinese ideas
OFire becomes bitter when blazing
upward.
OWood may turn acid when it changes
shape.
OMetal may turn bitter when it becomes
unstable.
OEarth may turn sweet when used in
agriculture."
History of Chemistry
400 - 1650
highlights the rise and spread of alchemy, the pretended
art of changing baser metal into gold.
the quest for the miraculous philosopher stone
many useful apparatus were perfected
large number of new and important substances were
prepared/discovered
new techniques developed
History of Chemistry
1400 - 1750
highlights the development of systematic metallurgy by Georg
Bauer
medicinal application and preparation of remedies and drugs by
Paracelsus
Roger Bacon stressed competent knowledge through
experimentation
Francis Bacon exposed the fallibility of Aristotles doctrines
relationship between pressure and volume of gases was measured
by Robert Boyle
History of Chemistry
1700 - 1777 B.C.
Georg Stahl suggested that all combustible
substances contained a fiery principle, phlogiston,
which escaped as flame when heated
oxygen gas was discovered by Joseph Priestley
quantitative and qualitative analysis improved
greatly by Joseph Black and Olaf Bergman
Whos Next?
Antoine Lavoisier (1743-1794) overthrow completely the
phlogiston theory and provided explanation of
combustion.
Joseph Proust (1754-1826) showed that a given
compound always contains exactly the same proportion
of elements by weight.
John Dalton (1766-1844) postulated that the
fundamental differences among atoms are their masses.
History of Chemistry
Early Greek Ideas on Matter

1. Democritus proposed the atomos which means
cannot be cut as a building block of all matter
(2,500 yrs ago)

2. Aristotle proposed that matter is made of the
four elements- earth, air, water and fire (2,400
yrs ago)

History of Chemistry
Democritus proposed the
atomos which means cannot be
cut as a building block of all
matter (2,500 yrs ago).

His theory was ignored. It was
only until the 20
th
century
(1900s) that the concept of the
atom was accepted by all
scientists.
History of Chemistry
Aristotle proposed that matter is made
of the four elements- earth, air, water
and fire (2,400 yrs ago).

It was even believed that a chemist can
make gold from any matter by finding
the right mix of earth, air, water and
fire.

His idea became more popular than
Democritus idea of the atomos.

History of Chemistry
Eastern Alchemy

1. The Greeks passed on their knowledge to the
Arabians who pursued alchemy (the ancient
version of chemistry)

2. Alchemy is the study of:
a. Transmuting base metals into gold and silver
(the philosophers stone)
b. Discovering the universal cure for disease
c. Discovering immortality

History of Chemistry
Alchemy is the study of:
a. Transmuting base
metals into gold and
silver (the
philosophers stone)
b. Discovering the
universal cure for
disease
c. Discovering
immortality
History of Chemistry
Alchemy among the Arabs

1. Ar-Razi (1,100 yrs ago) is considered as one of the
Fathers of Medicine.

2. Avicenna (1,000 yrs ago) wrote one of the most famous
books in medicine (Al-Qanoon fittib: the Cannon of
Medicine)

3. Arabian alchemists first practiced the scientific method
and so laid the foundation for chemistry.
History of Chemistry
Arabian physician-alchemists first practiced the
scientific method and so laid the foundation for
chemistry.
History of Chemistry
Early Western Alchemy

1. Alchemical knowledge was transferred to Europe
through an English Franciscan friar named Roger
Bacon (900 yrs ago) who taught that alchemy
should be used to produce medicines.

2. Ironically, early European alchemy would be
dominated by the quest for transmuting metals
into gold.
History of Chemistry
Roger Bacon taught that
alchemy should be used to
produce medicine. But
European alchemists
became obsessed with the
search for the
philosophers stone.
History of Chemistry
Iatrochemistry in Renaissance Europe

1. Paracelsus (450 yrs ago) established the practice of
iatrochemistry which is the use of alchemy to produce
medicines made of minerals such as mercury.

2. He also taught that medicines must be made as pure
substances or substances that are free from
contaminants.
History of Chemistry
Paracelsus (450 yrs ago)
founded iatrochemistry.
He also taught that
medicines must be made
as pure substances or
substances that are free
from contaminants.
History of Chemistry
The Element is Defined

1. Robert Boyle (300 years ago) defined the
element as a pure substance which cannot be
broken down into simpler substances.

2. He also worked on the behavior of gases and
discovered Boyles Law: that the volume of gasses
decreases with increasing pressure.
History of Chemistry
Robert Boyle (300 yrs ago)
defined that an element is a
substance that cannot be
broken down into simpler
substance.

He is still an alchemist
however, since he believed in
transmutation.
History of Chemistry
The Father of Modern Chemistry

1. Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier (200 yrs ago) is recognized as
the Father of Modern chemistry.

2. Lavoisier is known for his exact measurements and
meticulous experiments in the lab and for establishing the
Law of Conservation of Mass.

3. The Law of Conservation of Mass states that mass is
never gained or lost during chemical reactions.
History of Chemistry
Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier also
worked on:

1. Combustion
2. Reduction
3. and the nomenclature of
inorganic compounds

He was beheaded during the
French revolution.
Its because he
was a teacher!!!
The Language of Chemistry
CHEMICAL ELEMENTS -
pure substances that cannot be decomposed by ordinary means to
other substances.
Sodium
Bromine
Aluminum
The Language of Chemistry
The elements, their
names, and symbols
are given on the
PERIODIC
TABLE
How many elements
are there?
The Periodic Table
Dmitri Mendeleev (1834 - 1907)
Glenn Seaborg
(1912-1999)
Discovered 8
new elements.
One of whom
an element
was named.
Branches of Chemistry
Many major areas of study for
specialization
Several career opportunities
Also used in many other jobs

1. Organic Chemistry
Organic is the study of matter that
contains carbon
Organic chemists study the
structure, function, synthesis, and
identity of carbon compounds
Useful in petroleum industry,
pharmaceuticals, polymers
2. Inorganic Chemistry
Inorganic is the study of
matter that does NOT
contain carbon
Inorganic chemists study
the structure, function,
synthesis, and identity of
non-carbon compounds
Polymers, Metallurgy
3. Biochemistry
Biochemistry is
the study of
chemistry in living
things
Cross between
biology and
chemistry
Pharmaceuticals
and genetics
4. Physical Chemistry
Physical
chemistry is the
physics of
chemistry the
forces of matter
Much of IPC is
computational
Develop
theoretical ideas
for new
compounds
5. Analytical Chemistry
Analytical chemistry is
the study of high
precision
measurement
Find composition and
identity of chemicals
Forensics, quality
control, medical tests
Or Do You Feel Like
This When Doing
Science?
The Scientific Method
process that lies
at the center of
scientific inquiry
Steps in the Scientific Method?
making observations
gformulating hypothesis
@performing experiments
Observations?
Water boils at 100 C.
Kristel weighs 43 kilograms.


The leaves are turning yellow.
The coffee is hot.
Quantitative
}
Qualitative
}
Hypothesis?
a possible
explanation for the
observation.
Experiments
carried out to test the
hypothesis
involves information
gathering
? Question ?
What do you do once a set
of hypotheses that agree
with various observations is
obtained?
They are assembled
into a theory
Theory
a philosophy
a concept
a model
a system
a scheme
Theory
often called a model, it
is a set of tested
hypotheses that gives an
overall explanation of
some phenomena
Theories
interpretations or possible
explanations
changes eventually as more
information becomes available
attempts to explain observed
natural behaviors
Law
a binding rule
a piece of legislation
a general principle
a control or authority
a branch of knowledge
Natural Laws?
a scientific truth
a statement of a
generally observed
behaviors
a summary of what
happens
Parts of scientific method
Experiment
Theory
Prediction
Theory
Modified as
needed
Points to Ponder?
chemists/scientists are humans
sometimes/oftentimes:
- prejudice
- misinterprets data
- lose objectivity
- play politics
- etc., etc.
Points to Ponder?
chemistry/science is affected:
- budget and profit motives
- wars and politics
- fads and religious beliefs
Examples
Galileo was forced to recant his
astronomical observations in the face
of strong religious resistance
Lavoisier was beheaded because of
his political affiliations
great progress in Nitrogen chemistry
resulted from the desire to produce
explosives to fight wars
Nature of Science Terms
Fact: an observation that has been repeatedly confirmed
and for all practical purposes is accepted as true.

Hypothesis: A tentative statement about the natural world
leading to deductions that can be tested. If the deductions
are verified, the hypothesis is corroborated. If false, the
hypothesis must be abandoned or revised.

Law: A descriptive generalization about how some aspect
of the natural world behaves under stated circumstances.

Theory: A well-substantiated explanation of some aspect
of the natural world that can incorporate facts, laws,
inferences, and tested hypothesis.
Graphs
Bar Graph
shows how many of something
are in each category
0
2
4
6
8
10
A B C D F
Chemistry Grades
Pie Graph
shows how a whole is broken into parts
40%
25%
20%
15%
Entertainment (40%)
Food (25%)
Clothing (20%)
Savings (15%)
Percentage of
Weekly Income
Line Graph
shows continuous change
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
Jan Feb Mar Apr
Month
S
h
a
r
e

P
r
i
c
e

(
$
)
Stock Price over Time
Elements of a good line graph

axes labeled, with
units
use the available
space
title
neat
Temp. v. Vol. for a Gas at Constant
Pressure
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
120 140 160 180 200 220 240
Temp. (K)
V
o
l
u
m
e

(
L
)
Graphs
Line Graph
Used to show trends or continuous
change

Bar Graph
Used to display information collected by
counting

Pie Graph
Used to show how some fixed quantity is
broken down into parts
Pie Graph
Pie Graphs
Earth's Crust
Oxygen
49%
Silicon
26%
Other
9%
Aluminum
8%
Iron
5%
Calcium
3%
Oxygen
Silicon
Other
Aluminum
Iron
Calcium
Measurement of
Matter
Measurement

Metric The Universal
Language of Measurement
Measurement
is a process of comparing a
known quantity like measuring
device to an unknown quantity or
the things or objects to be
measured. It is the process of
determining how many times a
certain quantity is contained in a
standard measuring device.

The loss of the Mars Climate Orbiter on September 23,
1999, was a most unfortunate and highly avoidable
event.
The cause of the mishap has been traced to a mix-up
over units. Preliminary findings indicated that one team
used English units (e.g., inches, feet and pounds) while
the other used metric units for maneuvers required to
place the spacecraft in the proper Mars orbit.
The 'root cause' of the loss of the spacecraft was the
failed translation of English units into metric units.
For nearly three centuries, engineers and scientists
have been struggling with English units.
In his first annual
message to Congress
(1790 January), President
George Washington
pressed for uniformity in
currency, weights, and
measures. Secretary of
State Thomas Jefferson
urged Congress to reduce
the existing separate
systems of dry and liquid
measures to one set of
measures.
Over 200 years later, we still have separate systems. For example, our dry
quart is larger than our liquid quart, so four cups of flour and 4 cups of milk
should be measured with separate measuring devices-which differ in size!
Jefferson's second plan put before Congress was to reduce every branch
[of measurement] to the same decimal ratio already established for coin, and
thus bring the calculations of the principal affairs of life within the arithmetic of
every man who can multiply and divide plain numbers.
Congress took no action. Washington urged action again in his second
annual message to Congress (1790 December 08) and the House referred the
matter to the Senate, whose committee in this matter declined (1791 March 01)
due to negotiations in progress with the French and British Governments to
obtain an international standards of measurements.
Currency is
based on 10.
In the same year of
1790 King Louis XVI
of France was also
weary of the
inconsistencies of
measurement that
was hurting trade.
He ordered a new
system of
measurements be
developed.
Earlier in that century, Fahrenheit and Celsius used water as
the basis of their thermometers. Their thermometers were
calibrated using water, which everyone had access to. This
made their thermometers useful.
METRIC SYSTEM
The scientific system of measurement
is often referred to as the International
System of Units, or SI. Scientists throughout
the world use the metric system of
measurement. It is based on units of ten.
The meter was originally defined as
1/10,000,000 of the distance from the equator
to the North Pole.


Everyone
has access
to the Earth,
so this new
system was
to be based
on the size
of the Earth.
The idea was to measure a part of
Earths surface over a few degrees,
then calculate distance from Equator to
North Pole.
A survey team was suppose to measure the
distance between Barcelona, Spain going through
Paris and up to the English Channel.
By dividing the distance from the equator to the
north pole by 10 million, a convenient length was
defined.
It was a little longer than a yard, and the name
would be from the Greek word, Metron,
meaning to measure.
10,000,000
Equator to North Pole
The motto for
the metric
system was:
For all people,
for all time
Based on 10 & using Arabic Numerals
Since the number system in use was no longer
Roman Numerals, but the decimal number system
borrowed from the Arab worlds and from India, the
measurement system should also be based on 10 to
make conversions easy.
Since we have 10
fingers, a number
system based on
10 was developed.
Place Value
Roman Numerals did not
take advantage of place
value. X in Roman
Numerals meant ten. XXX
meant thirty. It didnt
matter where the X was
placed; it always had the
value of 10
Decimal
The word decimal from from Latin
decimalis meaning of a tithe A tithe
was traditionally one tenth of income, so
deci- meant one tenth.
The new measuring system should also
be based on tens and tenths.

Cubits
Yards
Miles
Nautical Miles
Feet
Hands
Inches
Leagues
Chains
Furlongs

sq. miles
sq. yards
sq. ft.
sq. in.
acres
Barrel
Cubic inches
Cubic feet
Cubic yards
Minims
Drops
Gallons, imperial gallons, quarts,
pints, fluid ounces, pecks, bushels
1 gram defined as the mass of one cubic centimeter of
water (or one milliliter [mL] of water_.
Liter from Litron:
Measure of
capacity
One liter of
water has a
mass of one
kilogram
SI Base Quantities
Base Quantity Name of Unit Symbol
Length meter m
Mass kilogram kg
Time second s
Current ampere A
Temperature kelvin K
Amount of substance mole mol
Luminous intensity candela cd
Prefixes Used with SI Units
Prefix Symbol Meaning
Tera- T 10
12

Giga- G 10
9

Mega- M 10
6

Kilo- k 10
3

Deci- d 10
-1

Centi- c 10
-2

Milli- m 10
-3

Micro- m 10
-6

Nano- n 10
-9

Pico- p 10
-12

LENGTH

1 meter, m = 100 centimeters, cm
1 meter, m = 1000 millimeters, mm
1 meter, m = 1,000,000 micrometers,
um
1 meter, m = 1,000,000,000 nanometers,
nm
1 meter, m = 10,000,000,000
Angstrom, A
1,000 meters, m = 1 kilometer
MASS

1 kilogram, kg = 1,000 grams, g
1 gram, g = 1,000 milligrams,
mg
1,000 kilograms, kg = 1 metric
ton
VOLUME


1 Liter, L = 1,000 milliliters, mL
1 Liter, L = 1,000 cubic
centimeters, cc
TEMPERATURE

0
C = 5/9 (
0
F-32)
0
F = 9/5 (
0
C + 32)
Kelvin, K =
0
C + 273
METRIC-ENGLISH Equivalent
METRIC ENGLISH
2.54 centimeter, cm 1 inch, in.
1 meter, m 39.37 inches, in.
1 kilometer, km 1.06 quartz, qt
250 milliliter, mL 1 cup, c
1 kilogram, kg 2.2 pounds, lb.
1 meter, m 3.28 feet, ft.
90 centimeters, cm 1 yard, yd.
3.79 Liters, L 1 gallon, gal
Matter - anything that occupies space and has
mass.
mass measure of the quantity of matter
SI unit of mass is the kilogram (kg)
1 kg = 1000 g = 1 x 10
3
g
weight force that gravity exerts on an object
weight = g x mass
120
Volume SI derived unit for volume is cubic meter (m
3
)
1 cm
3
= (1 x 10
-2
m)
3
= 1 x 10
-6
m
3

1 dm
3
= (1 x 10
-1
m)
3
= 1 x 10
-3
m
3

1 L = 1000 mL = 1000 cm
3
= 1 dm
3

1 mL = 1 cm
3

You are not changing the
size, just the name.
Convert 0.15 meters to
centimeters
0.15 meters
= centimeters
Starting amount
End Amount
.01
1 centi
0.15 meters = 15 meters
100
= 15 centimeters
If saying 15 hundredths, just say 15 centi-
equal
Convert 5234 millimeters to
meters
5234 millimeters
= meters
Starting amount
End Amount
milli
0.001
5234 millimeters 5234 meters
1000
equal
Convert 5234 millimeters to
centimeters
5234 millimeters
= centimeters
Starting amount
End Amount
milli
0.001
5234. millimeters
equal equal
0.01
centi
523.4 centimeters
Convert 5234 millimeters to
inches
5234 millimeters
= inches
Starting amount
End Amount
milli
0.001
equal equal
0.01
centi
2.54 cm
1 inch
1 inch
2.54 cm
Convert 21 grams per liter (21 g/L) to
milligrams per milliliter (mg/mL)
21 grams
Liter
= mg
mL
Starting amount
End Amount
milli
0.001
equal equal
0.001
milli
Convert 21 mg per liter (21 g/L) to
grams per 100 cc
21 mg
Liter
= g
100cc
Starting amount
End Amount
0.001
milli
equal equal
1L
1000cc
0.1
0.1
equal
0.00021
DENSITY
Density is equals to
the mass over volume
D = m/V
Unit (g/mL)
Density SI derived unit for density is kg/m
3

1 g/cm
3
= 1 g/mL = 1000 kg/m
3

density =
mass
volume
d =
m
V
A piece of platinum metal with a density of 21.5
g/cm
3
has a volume of 4.49 cm
3
. What is its mass?
d =
m
V
m = d x V = 21.5 g/cm
3
x 4.49 cm
3
= 96.5 g
Calculating the Density of An Object
from Its Mass and Volume
A block of wood with a length of
1.08m, height of 6.2 cm and
width of 5.1 cm has a mass of
2.52 kg. What is the density of
the wood, expressed in grams
per cubic centimeter?
Calculating the Mass of a Liquid
from Its Volume and Density
What is the mass of a 275 mL of
ethanol? The density of ethanol is
0.789 g/mL
Imran Syakir
Mohamad
Chemistry DACS 1233 132
K =
0
C + 273.15
0
F = x
0
C + 32

9
5
273 K = 0
0
C
373 K = 100
0
C
32
0
F = 0
0
C
212
0
F = 100
0
C
Convert 172.9
0
F to degrees Celsius.
0
F = x
0
C + 32

9
5
0
F 32 = x
0
C

9
5
x (
0
F 32) =
0
C

9
5
0
C = x (
0
F 32)
9
5
0
C = x (172.9 32) = 78.3
9
5
Percent Composition
Percent is the number of parts of a
constituent in 100 parts of the whole.

Ex. A seawater contains 3.5% NaCl, by
mass, means that in every 100
grams of seawater there is 3.5 g of
NaCl present
Uncertainties in Scientific
Measurement
Precision refers to the degree of
reproducibility of a measured
quantity

Accuracy refers to how close a
measured value is to the accepted
or real value.
Accuracy and Precision
_____________ how close a measurement is to the true value
__________ how close a set of measurements are to each other
accurate
&
precise
precise
but
not accurate
not accurate
&
not precise
Scientific Notation
Is a compact, simplest and easy way of
writing down very small and very large
numbers using powers of ten or in
exponential notation.
The exponent tells the number of times
the decimal point is moved from its
original place to right or from the original
place to the left.
The exponent is NEGATIVE if the
decimal point is moved from left to right
and POSITIVE if it is moved from right
to left.
Scientific Notation
The number of atoms in 12 g of carbon:
602,200,000,000,000,000,000,000
6.022 x 10
23

The mass of a single carbon atom in grams:
0.0000000000000000000000199
1.99 x 10
-23

N x 10
n

N is a number
between 1 and 10
n is a positive or
negative integer
Example:
4,000,000 = 4.0 x 10
6
532,000,000 = 5.32 x 10
8

0.000000045 = 4.0 x 10
-8
0.0032 = 3.2 x 10
-3
Scientific Notation
568.762
n > 0
568.762 = 5.68762 x 10
2

move decimal left
0.00000772
n < 0
0.00000772 = 7.72 x 10
-6

move decimal right
Addition or Subtraction
1. Write each quantity with the same
exponent n
2. Combine N
1
and N
2

3. The exponent, n, remains the
same
4.31 x 10
4
+ 3.9 x 10
3
=
4.31 x 10
4
+ 0.39 x 10
4
=
4.70 x 10
4

Scientific Notation
Multiplication
1. Multiply N
1
and N
2

2. Add exponents n
1

and n
2

(4.0 x 10
-5
) x (7.0 x 10
3
) =
(4.0 x 7.0) x (10
-5+3
) =
28 x 10
-2
=
2.8 x 10
-1

Division
1. Divide N
1
and N
2

2. Subtract exponents n
1
and n
2

8.5 x 10
4
5.0 x 10
9
=
(8.5 5.0) x 10
4-9
=
1.7 x 10
-5

Significant Figures
Any digit that is not zero is significant
1.234 kg 4 significant figures
Zeros between nonzero digits are significant
606 m 3 significant figures
Zeros to the left of the first nonzero digit are not significant
0.08 L 1 significant figure
If a number is greater than 1, then all zeros to the right of the
decimal point are significant
2.0 mg 2 significant figures
If a number is less than 1, then only the zeros that are at the
end and in the middle of the number are significant
0.00420 g 3 significant figures
How many significant figures are in
each of the following measurements?
24 mL 2 significant figures
3001 g 4 significant figures
0.0320 m
3
3 significant figures
6.4 x 10
4
molecules 2 significant figures
560 kg 2 significant figures
Significant Figures
Addition or Subtraction
The answer cannot have more digits to the right of the decimal
point than any of the original numbers.
89.332
1.1 +
90.432 round off to 90.4
one significant figure after decimal point
3.70
-2.9133
0.7867
two significant figures after decimal point
round off to 0.79
Significant Figures
Multiplication or Division
The number of significant figures in the result is set by the original number that has the
smallest number of significant figures
4.51 x 3.6666 = 16.536366 = 16.5
3 sig figs round to
3 sig figs
6.8 112.04 = 0.0606926
2 sig figs
round to
2 sig figs
= 0.061
Significant Figures
Exact Numbers
Numbers from definitions or numbers of objects are considered
to have an infinite number of significant figures
The average of three measured lengths; 6.64, 6.68 and 6.70?
6.64 + 6.68 + 6.70
3
= 6.67333 = 6.67
Because is an exact number
= 7
Factor-Label Method of Solving Problems
1. Determine which unit conversion factor(s) are needed
2. Carry units through calculation
3. If all units cancel except for the desired unit(s), then the problem was solved
correctly.
1 L = 1000 mL
How many mL are in 1.63 L?
1L
1000 mL
1.63 L x
= 1630 mL
The speed of sound in air is about 343 m/s.
What is this speed in miles per hour?
1 mi = 1609 m 1 min = 60 s 1 hour = 60 min
343
m
s
x
1 mi
1609 m
60 s
1 min
x
60 min
1 hour
x
= 767
mi
hour
meters to miles
seconds to hours
A Q
6000
(4 x 972) + (76.4 x 29.3) (12 x 7)
0.2022
0.00627 + 0.1956 + 0.00029
2.73
7.43
470
(63.7 x 49) / 6.664
53
1.267 x 42 x 0.9963
A Q
V = m/D
150lbs = 68.1kg = 68,100g
V = 68,100g / (0.95g/cm
3
)
V = 72,000cm
3

Depending upon the amount of fat
a person has, the human body
has a density of about 0.95g/cm
3
.
If a person weighed 150lbs, what
would be their volume in cm
3
?
V = mass/density
V = 755g / (2.564g/cm
3
)
= 294 cm
3

What is the volume of 755g of a
material with a density of
2.564g/mL?
184 K
Liquid ethane boils at -89C. What
is its boiling point on the Kelvin
scale?
Final Note
Chemistry is a lot like love. Without
chemistry, there wont be any rage
of hormones or even couples made
because they are not in sync with
each other

Chemistry is like DOTA:
Dealing of Things Aspect
May mga recipes din
Dapat nagmimix ang characters
para maganda ang product
Both aim to improve, continue
to discover and develop
Both are FUN

Chemistry:

-A journey of a thousand miles that begins
with a single step

-It is like a bikini, what it reveals is
essential what it conceals is vital

BVV
Chemistry is omnipresent at times we find
ourselves in chemistry with other people
Cool at creative na pag
Halo ng mga
Elements na nagfo2rm ng
Matter
It
Suggests that one must
TRY to study hard & excel
What they say
about
Chemistry
Mystery solver ...

like a shadow since birth still
chemistry is with me.

confuses my senses makes
me feel interested
Chemistry is like a song. Once you learned
it, youll find yourself enjoying & loving it

is like SMART & Globe its
simply AMAZING & makes
Great Things Possible

is a challenge.

So plant as many seeds of
knowledge as you can

OR THE ZOMBIES WILL
EAT YOUR BRAIN!