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LOSS CONTROL AND SAFETY MANAGEMENT IN INDUSDTRIES

BY
C.V.RAGHUNATHAN,B.TECH;DIS(HONS):MIE;MSEA DY.CHIEF SAFETY MANAGER THERMAL POWER STATION-I NEYVELI LIGNITE CORPORATION LTD

NEED- I TODAYS BUSINESS SCENARIO

Liberalisation Globalisation Open Economy Increased Competition Customer driven market Survival of the fittest

NEED-II STATUTORY COMPLIANCE

FACTORIES ACT 1948 AMENDED IN 1987

Power Generation Industry comes under sec2(cb) Applicability of Sec 41B,41C,41E,41H Sec7A (a) Plant to be maintained safe without health risk (b) Safe handling and usage of substances (c) Information , instruction,training and supervision on safety (d) Safe access and eggress (e) Maintenance and monitoring of work place environment

THE TWO MANTHRAS

QUALITY PRODUCTIVITY
(CONTROL OF LOSS PRODUCING EVENTS, OPTIMUM UTILISATION OF MONEY,MACHINES, MATERIALS,METHODS,MEN)

DEFINITIONS

HAZARD Source/inherent property of a substance which has the potential to cause harm to human by way of injury/ill health,damage to property and environment RISK The combination of likelihood and consequence of a hazardous event INCIDENT An event that has potential to cause an accident(includes near miss) ACCIDENT Undesired event that causes injury, ill health,death, damage to property and environment

ACCIDENTS

LOSS PRODUCING EVENTS ECONOMIC LOSS SOCIAL LOSS IMPAIRS INDIVIDUAL AND GROUP PRODUCTIVITY RETARDS ADVANCEMENT AND STANDARD OF LIVING

ACCIDENTS

ACCIDENTS DO NOT HAPPEN; THEY ARE CAUSED ALL THE HUMAN ERRORS DO NOT END UP IN ACCIDENTS BUT MOST OF THE ACCIDENTS ARE RESULTS OF HUMAN ERROR ACCIDENT PREVENTION VITAL FOR NATIONAL PROGERSS

LOSS PREVENTION & CONTROL


MANAGEMENT

CONTROL OF MACHINE PERFORMANCE CONTROL OF MEN PERFORMANE CONTROL OF PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT CONTROL OF MATERIALS

CONTROL OF MACHINE PERFORMANCE

Safety in conceptual stage Safety in design stage Safety in construction stage Safety in transportation stage Safety in operation & maintenance stage Safety in dismantling stage

CONTROL OF MATERIALS
Inventory Control Storage & Handling MSDS Antidotes

HUMAN PERFORMANCE
ORGANISATIONAL

BEHAVIOUR

INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOUR
ATTITUDE
PERSONALITY
(AGE,SEX,EDUCATION, UPBRINGING, EXPERIENCE, ENVIRONMENT, BELIEFS,VALUES, POSITION, SITUATION) PERCEPTION

CONTROL OF MEN PERFORMANCE

Recruitment Selection Placement Induction Training Devolopment Retraining Motivation & Discipline

ACCIDENT COSTING (Affected parties)

Accidentee Management Immediate Supervisor Government Society

ACCIDENTEE

Loss of life/limb Pain,Anxiety Loss of livelyhood,wages Incapacity to perform normal work

SUPERVISOR

Anxiety Loss of prestige/Reputation Legal implications Loss of skill Time and energy for the devolopment of substitute

MANAGEMENT

DIRECT COST Cost of Compensation Cost of medical expenses Cost of investigation Cost of rehabilitation

MANAGEMENT

INDIRECT COSTS Lost time of accidentee Lost time of fellow workmen Lost time of Supervisors & Executives Lost time of clearing the accident site Lost time of repairing the damaged equipments Lost time for restarting the process/production Reduced quality of output due to the emotional upset of supervisors/workmen Blocked Capital Loss of skill and experience Lost time for the training of the replaced workman Lowered employee morale Increased labour conflict Unfavourable public image/relations

ACCIDENT PREVENTION

INDENTIFY AND ESTABLISH CONTROL OVER THE CAUSE OF ACCIDENTS

INVESTMENT FOR SAFETY


Cost of accidents are 10 times more than the cost of accident prevention programmes, as the indirect cost of accidents are 10 times more than the direct costs.

ACCIDENT CAUSES

PROXIMATE CAUSE CONTRIBUTING CAUSE IDETIFY AND ATTACK THE ROOT (CONTRIBUTING) CAUSES

PROXIMATE CAUSE

UNSAFE PHYSICAL CONDITION UNSAFE WORK PRACTICES COMBINATION OF BOTH

CONTRIBUTING CAUSE

Inadequate knowledge and skill Anatomical /Physiological unsuitability Improper Psychological charecteristics

ROOT CAUSE

FROM THE PART OF SUPERVISOR

Inadequate leadership Inadequate motivation Inadequate instruction(No instruction,Incomplete instruction,Erroneous instruction)

ROOT CAUSE

FROM THE PART OF WORKMAN


ANATOMICAL/PHYSIOLOGICAL UNSUITABILITY

Loss of limbs Shortage of limbs Poor eye sight Poor hearing(THL/PHL) Astigmatism Epileptic

ROOT CAUSE

FROM THE PART OF WORKMAN PSYCHOLOGICAL


Over confidence Lack of confidence Haste Short cut practices Chance taking Inattention Absent minded Thoughtlessness Fatalistic attitude

ROOT CAUSES

FROM THE PART OF WORKMAN DISCIPLINE Disobedience Disregard to instructions PHYSICAL CONDITION Sick/Weak/Fatigued KNOWLEDGE/SKILL Inexperienced Ignorant

CLASSIFICATION OF INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENTS AS PER IS 3786

CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO B1 AGENCY B2 UNSAFE PHYSICAL CONDITION B3 UNSAFE ACT B4 UNSAFE PERSONAL FACTOR B5 TYPE OF ACCIDENT B6 NATURE OF INJURY B7 LOCATION OF INJURY

B1 AGENCY

MACHINES(Prime movers,Transmission machineries,metal/wood/agricultural,mining machineries) TRANSPORTATION/MOVING EQUIPMENT(Lifting machines,Road,Rail,Air,Water transportation OTHER EQUIPMENTS(Pressure vessels,Electrical installations,Electric hand tools)

B2 UNSAFE PHYSICAL CONDITION

Inadequately Guarded machinery Inadequate Ventilation Inadequate illumination

B3 UNSAFE ACT

Operating without authority Failure to warn Operating at unsafe speed Making safety devices inoperative

B4 UNSAFE PERSONAL FACTORS

Inadequate knowledge and skill Anatomical /Physiological unsuitability Improper psychological charecteristics

B5 TYPE OF ACCIDENTS

Fall of persons Fall of objects Striking against objects Struck by objects Caught in between objects Exposure to extra temperature Exposure to electric current

B6 LOCATION OF INJURY

Head Neck Trunk Upper limb Lower limb Multiple locations

B7 NATURE OF INJURY

Fractures Dislocations Sprains Concussions Burns Acute poisoning Asphyxia

ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION

COLLECTION OF PRELIMINARY DATA SPOT VISIT AND COLLECTION OF OBJECTIVE EVIDENCES INTERACTION AND RECORDING ANALYSIS AND CONCLUSION RECURRENCE AVOIDANCE MEASURES PREPARATION OF REPORT

ACCIDENT INVESTIGATOR

KNOWLEDGEABLE EXPERIENCED PROMPT UNBIASED FACT FINDING SOUND IN JUDGEMENT DIPLOMATIC

REPORTING

SYSTEM OF REPORTING
(INCIDENTS,NEAR MISSES,ACCIDENTS) STATUTORY REPORTING FACTORIES ACT SECTION 88- NOTICE OF ACCIDENTS SECTION 88A-NOTICE OF DANGEROUS OCCURENCES SECTION 89-NOTICE OF DISEASES

REPORTING

TNFR/RULE 96 (FATAL,SERIOUS,DANGEROUS OCCURRENCE) Immediate information to CIF/DCIF/IF through telephone/Fax,District Magistrate,Inspector of Police Form 18/18A within 12 Hrs. Other cases of reportable accidents within 72 Hrs in Form 18 Electrical accidents in Power Generation, Transmission,Distribution systems involving injury to human or animal to be reported to the Electrical inspector by telephone within 24 Hrs and in FORM as per ANNEXURE XIII within 48 Hrs.(as per Rule 44A of IER 1956)

MANAGEMENT OF INTOLERABLE RISKS

Reduce the risk level by reducing the likelihood & consequence THROUGH Introduction of New Technology Modification of Existing Technology Substitution Separation Administration Training PPE

FEASIBILITY STUDIES

TECHNICAL VIABILITY ECONOMIC VIABILITY OPERATIONAL VIABILITY LEGAL REQUIREMENTS

AREAS OF OSH AUDIT AS PER IS 14489

Health & Safety Policy Safety Organisation (Safety Dept/Committee/Safety Budjet Accident Reporting,Investigation & Analysis Safety Inspections Safety Education & Training First Aid Occupational Health Centre

OSH AUDIT AS PER IS14489

General Working Condition(House Keeping,Noise,Illumination,Ventilation) Hazard Identification & Control Safe Operating Procedures Work Permit System Waste Disposal System Personal Protective Equipment

OSH AUDIT AS PER IS 14489

Fire Protection Emergency Preparedness Plant Layout and Area Classification Static Electricity Pressure Vessels(Fired & Unfired) New Equipment Review Lifting Machines & Tackles

OSH AUDIT AS PER IS 14489

Mobile Equipment & Vehicular Traffic Safe Access Material Handling Pressure Vessels/Tanks Safety ON SITE Gas Cylinder Storage Area Plant Communication System Transportation of Hazardous Materials (Road/Rail/Pipelines)

SAFETY PERFORMANCE INDICES

FREQUENCY RATE (Number of accidents x10,00,000)/Man Hours worked SEVERITY RATE (Total mandays lost x10,00,000)/Man Hours worked

DETERMINATION OF RISK LIKELIHOOD Highly Unlikely Full control over the identified hazard by way of Technology, Operational 1 Control,measurement and monitoring,Competence(NO GAP) Unlikely Minor Gap exits over the control of identified hazard 2 Likely Major Gap exits in control over the identified hazard 3 Very Likely No Control over the identified hazard 4

CRITERIA FOR RISK ASSESSMENT LIKELIHOD(L) COSEQUENCE( C ) RISK=LxC Highly Unlikely Slightly Harmful Trivial (1) (2) (2) Unlikely Harmful Moderate/ (2) (4) Tolerable (4-8) Likely Very Harmful Substantial (3) (6) (12-18) Very Likely Extremely Harmful Intolerable (4) (8) (24-32)

DETERMINATION OF RISK CONSEQUENCE LEVEL

RANKING
Slightly Harmful 2 Harmful 4

HUMAN
Momentary Discomfort First Aid./Non Reportable injuries

PROPERTY
No Damage Minor Damage

Very Harmful 6

Extremely Harmful 8

Reportable Severe Damage Minor/Major injuries(Temp disability) Fatal/Perm. Complete Disability(Incide Distruction nts involving large number of people)